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Effectiveness of the TANF Program on Recipients’ Employment Gains by State
The purpose of the study was to establish the effectiveness of the TANF program on recipients’ employment by state. To arrive at the research purpose, this study aimed to answer the following hypotheses:
H_{0}1. Work participation rates has a significant relationship with exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries.
H_{0}2. Budget spent on work-related activities has a significant relationship with exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries.
H_{0}3. Mandatory job search has a significant relationship with exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries.
The results section will include both descriptive and inferential statistics. Inferential statistics will aid in validating hypotheses and will include regression analyses. Analysis will be conducted through SPSS where inferences will be made at .05 significance level.
Descriptive Statistics
This section presents the descriptive statistics of key variables used in this study. Descriptive statistics in Table 1 revealed that there was a total of 153 cases. The mean WPR was 42.18% with the highest WPR being 90.70% and the least WPR was 4.70%. The average number of cases closed was 32.58% where the maximum was 92.3% and the minimum was 3.9%. The average budget included in the study was 8.60% where the maximum was 35.70% and the minimum was 0%. The results also depicted that the mean number of job applications was 21,514 with the greatest number of applications being 402,558 whereas the lowest number was 428.
Table 1. Descriptive statistics of study variables
Variables | N | Minimum | Maximum | Mean | Std. Deviation |
WPR | 153 | 4.70% | 90.70% | 42.1797% | 18.15128% |
Cases Closed | 153 | 3.90% | 92.30% | 32.5810% | 16.03021% |
Budget | 152 | 0.00% | 35.70% | 8.5993% | 6.97930% |
Avg. Applications | 153 | 428.0 | 402558.0 | 21514.399 | 51491.0494 |
Hypothesis One
H_{0}1: Work participation rates do not have a significant relationship with exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries.
H_{1}1: Work participation rates has a significant relationship with exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries.
To establish the impact of work participation rates (WPR) on exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries, a regression analysis was conducted. The dependent variable was the exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries (cases closed) whereas the independent variable was WPR. The regression analysis conducted revealed that the model was insignificant for its data values (F(1, 151) = 1.375, p = .243) as depicted in Table 2. In particular, the model depicted that .9% of the variation in exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries was attributed by changes in WPR.
Table 2. The goodness of fit of the model
Model | Sum of Squares | df | Mean Square | F | Sig. | |
Regression | 352.549 | 1 | 352.549 | 1.375 | .243^{b} | |
Residual | 38706.546 | 151 | 256.335 | |||
Total | 39059.095 | 152 | ||||
a. Dependent Variable: Cases Closed | ||||||
b. Predictors: (Constant), WPR
c. R-Squared = .009 |
The results from Table 3, showed that the hypothesis was not significant (t = 1.173, p = .243) at .05 significance level. The results, thus, revealed that work participation rates do not have a significant relationship with exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries.
Table 3. Relationship between WPR and exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries
Model | Coefficients | t | Sig. | ||
B | Std. Error | ||||
(Constant) | 29.042 | 3.284 | 8.845 | .000 | |
WPR | .084 | .072 | 1.173 | .243 |
Hypothesis Two
H_{0}2. Budget spent on work-related activities does not have a significant relationship with exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries.
H_{1}2. Budget spent on work-related activities has a significant relationship with exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries.
A regression model was conducted to determine the effect of the budget spent on work-related activities on exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries. The dependent variable was the exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries (cases closed) whereas the independent variable was the budget spent on work-related activities. The regression analysis conducted demonstrated that the model was insignificant for its data values (F(1, 150) = 2.521, p = .114) as depicted in Table 4. In particular, the model illustrated that 1.7% of the variation in exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries was attributed to changes in budget spent on work-related activities.
Table 4. The goodness of fit of the model
Model | Sum of Squares | df | Mean Square | F | Sig. | |
Regression | 644.819 | 1 | 644.819 | 2.521 | .114^{b} | |
Residual | 38365.220 | 150 | 255.768 | |||
Total | 39010.039 | 151 | ||||
a. Dependent Variable: Cases Closed | ||||||
b. Predictors: (Constant), Budget
c. R-Squared = .017 |
The results from Table 5, showed that the hypothesis was not significant (t = -1.588, p = .114) at .05 significance level. The results, thus, demonstrated that the budget spent on work-related activities does not have a significant relationship with exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries.
Table 5. Relationship between budget spent on work-related activities and exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries
Model | Coefficients | t | Sig. | ||
B | Std. Error | ||||
(Constant) | 35.173 | 2.063 | 17.053 | .000 | |
Budget | -.296 | .186 | -1.588 | .114 |
Hypothesis Three
H_{0}3. Mandatory job search does not have a significant relationship with exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries.
H_{1}3. Mandatory job search has a significant relationship with exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries.
A regression model was carried out to establish the impact of mandatory job search on exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries. The dependent variable was the exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries (cases closed) whereas the independent variable was mandatory job search. The regression analysis showed that the model was significant for its data values (F(1, 151) = 4.218, p = .042) as depicted in Table 6. In particular, the model depicted that 4.2% of the variation in exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries was attributed to changes in the mandatory job search.
Table 6. The goodness of fit of the model
Model | Sum of Squares | df | Mean Square | F | Sig. | |
Regression | 1061.392 | 1 | 1061.392 | 4.218 | .042^{b} | |
Residual | 37997.703 | 151 | 251.640 | |||
Total | 39059.095 | 152 | ||||
a. Dependent Variable: Cases Closed | ||||||
b. Predictors: (Constant), State Rules
c. R-Squared = .042 |
The results from Table 7, demonstrated that the hypothesis was statistically significant (t = 6.532, p = .000) at .05 significance level. The results, thus, revealed that mandatory job search does have a positive significant relationship with exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries. In particular, the exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries increases by 5.587 units as the mandatory job search increases.
Table 7. Relationship between mandatory job search and exit numbers among TANF beneficiaries
Model | Coefficients | t | Sig. | ||
B | Std. Error | ||||
(Constant) | 25.131 | 3.847 | 6.532 | .000 | |
State Rules | 5.587 | 2.721 | 2.054 | .042 |